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Weather Effects During The Battle Of The Bulge And The Normandy Invasion

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Weather Effects During The Battle Of The Bulge And The Normandy Invasion


Published 1982
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Weather Effects During The Battle Of The Bulge And The Normandy Invasion
ABSTRACT
"A general description of the terrain of the Ardennes-Ejiel area is given, and weather related decisions concerning the final attack date and the buildup of the German offensive push are noted. Surface meteorological charts for 16 and 23 December 1944 are presented and show that a modified cold maritime polar air mass was over the Ardennes-Ejiel area when the Battle of the Bulge began. Weather related instances on the battlefield are noted, particularly where fog or snow reduced visibility and where thaws or freezes influenced trafficability. Weather events leading up to D-day are given, and surface weather charts for 3, 4, and 6 June 1944 are shown. Adverse weather conditions before D-day and the lack of timely surface observations caused the German commanders not to suspect an invasion on 6 June 1944. The Germans had no knowledge that a maritime polar air mass was pushing into France from the northwest and would cause weather conditions suitable for the invasion.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I wish to acknowledge the helpful discussions with Mr. Jack Allen and Mr. James Devine in the preparation of this report. The actual weather conditions for tactical Air Force bases and northern battle areas were provided by Mr. John Fuller, Air Weather Service historian."
CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES 6
LIST OF FIGURES 6
INTRODUCTION 7
BATTLE OF THE BULGE
Terrain, Roads, and Climate
Decisions and Weather 9
Decisions 9
Weather and Related Engagements: 16-22 December 1944 10
23-27 December 1944 13
THE NORMANDY INVASION 14
Weather and the Great Decision 14
The Invasion and Supplies 16
SUMMARY 18
TABLES 19
FIGURES 22
REFERENCES 33
LIST OF TABLES
1. Actual Weather Conditions for Tactical Air Force Bases and Northern Battle Areas 19
LIST OF FIGURES
1. The Western Front on 15 December 1944 22
2. Surface meteorological chart for 15 December 1944 23
3. Meteorological conditions, 16-22 December 1944 24
4. Locations of small villages in Belgium and Western Germany 25
5. Locations of small villages in Belgium and Luxembourg 26
6. Surface meteorological chart for 23 December 1944 27
7. Meteorological conditions, 23-27 December 1944 28
8. Weather chart for 1300 Gmt, 3 June 1944 29
9. Weather chart for 1300 Gmt, 4 June 1944 30
10. The Normandy Beachhead 31
11. Weather chart for 0700 Gmt, 6 June 1944 32

Digitized by www.dtic.mil
NTIS Accession no. AD-A121 480/8.

Includes bibliographical references

Photocopy

Introduction -- Battle of the Bulge : Terrain, roads, and climate ; Decisions and weather -- The Normandy invasion : Weather and the great decision ; The invasion and supplies -- Summary

A general description of the terrain of the Ardennes-Eifel area is given, and weather-related decisions concerning the final attack date and the buildup of the German offensive push are noted. Surface meteorological charts for 16 and 23 December 1944 are presented and show that a modified cold maritime polar air mass was over the Ardennes-Eiffel area when the Battle of the Bulge began. Weather-related instances on the battlefield are noted, particularly where fog or snow reduced visibility and where thaws or freezes influenced traffficability. Weather events leading up to D-day are given, and surface weather charts for 3, 4, and 6 June 1944 are shown. Adverse weather conditions before D-day and the lack of timely surface observations caused the German commanders not to suspect an invasion on 6 June 1944. The Germans had no knowledge that a maritime polar air mass was pushing into France from the northwest and would cause weather conditions suitable for the invasion


Publisher New Mexico : U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory
Year 1982
Pages 34
Language English
Collection wwIIarchive; additional_collections

Full catalog record MARCXML

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